December 2013

Event Date: 
Monday, February 24, 2014 - 09:30 - Tuesday, February 25, 2014 - 17:00

 

Registration Closed

24-25 February 2014
The Australian Museum

Microbiology is undergoing a revolution bought about by advances in next-generation DNA sequencing technology.  Researchers are now required to understand an array of bioinformatics principles and tools to interpret the vast amounts of data being generated. Presented by leading Australian researchers, TOAST is a 2-day event aimed at postgraduate students and early career postdocs providing in-depth tutorials encompassing concepts and software available to molecular microbiologists and microbial ecologists including:

Event Date: 
Wednesday, February 26, 2014 - 14:00 - 21:00

 

Registration Closed

26 February 2014
The Australian Museum

UPDATE: Live musical entertainment for the night will be provided by local jazz band Alice Terry and the Skinny White Boys. We encourage you to check this great act out here.

The time has come to celebrate a massively successful year for JAMS and look to an even more exciting future. JAMS is continuing to grow, with new sponsors and a diversification of activities and outreach. In addition to a year of great presentations and our involvement in National Science Week, 2013 also saw the awarding of the first “JAMS grant” with a LIEF project funded by the ARC. To acknowledge these successes, and to celebrate our 3 year anniversary, this year's annual dinner and symposium will be even BIGGER and BETTER than previous years.

Event Date: 
Wednesday, February 26, 2014 - 15:15 - 15:45
Institution: 
Singapore Centre on Environmental Life Sciences Engineering
Title: 

Dissecting Structure-Function Relationships In Complex Microbial Communities Using Perturbation Transcriptomics

Abstract: 

Application of ‘omics technologies, including high-throughput nucleic acid sequencing and advanced mass spectrometry, show huge potential to increase our understanding of bioprocesses occurring in both natural and engineering microbial ecosystems. Field studies of such systems are inherently complicated, while laboratory reactor models involve extensive community modifications following inoculation and may not accurately reflect the biology of the source community. Here we develop a complementary approach to dissecting structure-function relationships of complex microbial communities, by applying experimental perturbations to freshly sourced, intact communities in a controlled fashion. In an investigation examining nitrogen transformation in wastewater treatment, we use metatranscriptomics in a time series design (n=20 samples) to study changes associated with onset of oxygenation. This stimulus switches the community between de-nitrification and nitrification phases of the nitrogen cycle, thus modeling a key aspect of wastewater process control. This model permits identification of functional genes, in both known and previously unknown taxa, and represents a readily adaptable model studying structure-function relationships in microbial communities. If time permits, I will discuss how this perturbation metatranscriptomics approach has implications for improving our ability to perform metagenome assembly.

Event Date: 
Wednesday, February 26, 2014 - 15:45 - 16:15
Institution: 
University of Perugia, Italy
Title: 

The intricate cross-talk of the microbiome in Resistance and Tolerance to pathogens

Abstract: 

The diverse microbial population characterizing the human host represents the result of different complex scenarios impacting the human microbiome assembly. The variety of the microbial species involved plays an important role on the human health by affecting the tissue differentiation, the modulation of the immune system as well as the general response against infectious pathogens, which has been recently revised and divided into two different strategies named Resistance and Tolerance. Resistance being the strategy where the host protects himself by reducing the pathogen load whereby the Tolerance being the opposite strategy, which consists in tolerating the pathogen to avoid tissue damage due to the occurrence of subsequent inflammatory pathologies. The host microbiome seems to play a crucial role in determining which strategy the host will exploit to avoid infection. We recently found that highly adaptive lactobacilli, switching from sugar to Tryptophan (Trp) as an energy source  are expanded and produce an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligand—indole-3-aldehyde—that contributes to AhR-dependent IL-22 transcription, which then trigger the release of antimicrobial peptides by the gut epithelium. Importantly, innate lymphocytes IL-22 producers were already described as a typical innate Resistance strategy to protect the host from intragastrical Candida albicans infections in mice. Thus, the resulting IL-22-dependent balanced mucosal response allows for survival of mixed microbial communities yet provides colonization resistance to the fungus Candida albicans. Therefore, the microbiota-AhR axis might represent an important strategy pursued by co-evolutive commensalism for fine-tuning host mucosal reactivity contingent on Trp catabolism.