June 2014

Event Date: 
Wednesday, June 25, 2014 - 18:00 - 18:15
Institution: 
UNSW
Title: 

Nitric oxide treatment for the control of reverse osmosis membrane biofouling

Abstract: 

Biofouling remains a key challenge for membrane based water treatment systems.  This study investigated the dispersal potential of the nitric oxide (NO) donor compound, PROLI NONOate, on single species biofilms formed by bacteria isolated from industrial membrane bioreactor and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes, as well as on mixed species biofilms.  The potential of PROLI NONOate to control RO membrane biofouling was also examined.  Confocal microscopy revealed that different bacteria responded differently to PROLI NONOate exposure.  However, the addition of NO induced dispersal in all but two of the bacteria tested and successfully reduced mixed species biofilms.  The addition of 40 µM PROLI NONOate at 24 h intervals to a laboratory-scale RO system led to a 92% reduction in the rate of biofouling (pressure rise over a given period) by a bacterial community cultured from an industrial RO membrane.  Confocal microscopy and EPS extraction revealed that PROLI NONOate treatment led to a 48% reduction in polysaccharides, a 66% reduction in proteins and a 29% reduction in microbial cells compared to the untreated control.  A reduction in biofilm surface coverage (59% vs. 98%, treated vs. control) and average thickness (20 µm vs. 26 µm, treated vs. control) was also observed.  The addition of PROLI NONOate led to a 22% increase in the time required for the RO module to reach its maximum TMP, further indicating that NO treatment delayed fouling.  Pyrosequencing analysis revealed that the NO treatment did not significantly alter the microbial community composition of the membrane biofilm.  These results present strong evidence for the application of PROLI NONOate for prevention of RO biofouling in an industrial setting.

Event Date: 
Wednesday, June 25, 2014 - 18:15 - 18:30
Institution: 
CSIRO
Title: 

Biomes of Australian Soil Environments (BASE)

Abstract: 

The Biomes of Australian Soil Environments (BASE) is a soil microbial diversity database faciliatated by Bioplatforms Australia and currently involving 14 Australian agencies. The BASE project is collecting biodiversity data from Australian soils in the form of amplicon sequences and amplication free metagenomic sequences. Sequence data is accompanied by rich contextual data describing soil physical and chemical attributes, land use, overlying vegetation and climate. All information collected is made publicly available via the BASE database. Thus far BASE has collected approximately 900 samples, with data from over 400 of these being currently available. I will briefly introduce the BASE project and its newly deployed database by describing the sampling and sequencing protocols and demonstrating the databases search capabilities.

Event Date: 
Wednesday, June 25, 2014 - 19:00 - 20:00
Institution: 
UTS
Title: 

Honey: Return of an Ancient Remedy

Abstract: 

Chronic wounds are a tremendous burden to human health worldwide, currently affecting 2% of the population in developed countries, with significant social and economic costs. Treatment of these wounds is becoming increasingly difficult due to infections caused by multidrug resistant bacteria. Honey is increasingly being used as a topical treatment for these wounds. New Zealand manuka honey has potent broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and resistance to honey has not been attainable in the laboratory. Approved medical-grade manuka honey and honey dressings are readily available for use in wound treatment but their use is limited, largely due to lack of information about how they work. This talk will provide an overview of where we are at with research examining the value of honey as an antibacterial agent in wound treatment. It will include how different bacteria respond to honey, synergistic interaction studies using manuka honey and antibiotics currently used to treat infected wounds, and biofilm prevention and eradication studies.