Acid fast bacilli

Event Date: 
Wednesday, August 29, 2012 - 18:15 - 18:30
Institution: 
University of Sydney
Title: 

What is the substrate of the sMMO-like genes of Mycobacterium strain NBB4?

Abstract: 

Monooxygenase (MO) enzymes are important for biogeochemistry, biocatalysis and bioremediation. In microbes, MOs are best known as the catalysts for methane oxidation, which is a process of immense importance for the global carbon cycle and for influencing climate change. Mycobacterium strain NBB4, an ethene-oxidising isolate from estuarine sediment, contains a diverse array of MO genes, including homologs of the particulate and soluble methane MOs (pMMO/sMMO), cytochrome p450's, and an ethene MO. We have previously shown that NBB4 can biodegrade several chlorinated pollutants, and that the pMMO homolog is actually an ethane/propane/butane MO. The function of the sMMO homolog in NBB4 (genes designated smoXYBCZ) is currently unknown. This gene cluster has only low identity to sMMO, and methane is not a substrate for growth of NBB4. The aim of this Honours project is to identify the substrate of this novel MO via knockout and heterologous expression experiments. Our hypothesis is that smoXYBCZ acts in the second step of the butane oxidation pathway to convert butanol to butanediol.

Sydney may have failed to deliver some sunshine on the last day of a slightly extended summer, but this didn’t dampen the spirits of Sydney’s microbiology community who turned out in numbers for the Inaugural JAMS Anniversary half-day meeting at the Australian Museum. This special meeting celebrated the first birthday of JAMS, an ASM special interest group that aims to bring together research microbiologists, post-docs and PhD students working in non-clinical research from all institutes.

Special thanks must go to the sponsors of the meeting: POCD scientific; Becton, Dickinson and Company; Macquarie University; The University of Sydney; The University of NSW; The University of Technology, Sydney, and; The University of Western Sydney. Another special thank you must also go to Federico Lauro (UNSW) and other members of the JAMS steering committee for organising the anniversary meeting and for their continued commitment to JAMS. The steering committee would also like to thank the Australian Museum who kindly provided the venue for our regular meetings and who hosted this special event.

Event Date: 
Wednesday, February 29, 2012 - 15:45 - 16:15
Institution: 
University of Melbourne
Title: 

Retracing the Recent Emergence of Mycobacterium ulcerans.

Abstract: 

It is more than 60 years since Mycobacterium ulcerans was shown to be the causative agent of Buruli ulcer yet it is still unclear where the bacterium resides in the environment and how it is transmitted to humans. Limited genome comparisons show that M. ulcerans has the characteristics of a niche-adapted microbe, having evolved recently from the fish-associated, opportunistic human pathogen, Mycobacterium marinum by horizontal gene transfer and reductive evolution. To further understand the relationship between these two species of pathogenic mycobacteria and to gain deeper insights into the evolution of M. ulcerans, we have used high throughput short-read DNA sequencing and compared the genomes of 30 strains of M. ulcerans and 5 strains of M. marinum, a strain collection that spans the known genetic diversity of these two species. We used a nucleotide read-mapping approach and objectively defined a 4,362,138 bp M. ulcerans-M. marinum core genome. Pairwise comparisons of every strain against this core revealed 129,416 variable nucleotide positions (3.0% nucleotide overall variation) across the two species and permitted the construction of a high resolution phylogeny for the complex, confirming that all M. ulcerans strains evolved from a common M. marinum progenitor and have diverged again into two distinct sub- lineages. In conjunction with de novo sequence assembly and gene ortholog clustering techniques, we used this phylogeny as a framework for reconstruction of a putative M. ulcerans most recent common ancestor (MRCA). We show that presence of the pMUM plasmid required for production of the polyketide toxin mycolactone (a potent immunosuppressor), high copy number of the insertion sequence IS2404, and loss/mutation of genes associated with, anaerobic respiration, lipid and cell-wall metabolism were all key attributes of the M. ulcerans MRCA before its global dispersal. Interestingly, intact genes involved with lipid metabolism and the cell wall showed evidence of positive selection with significantly higher dN/dS ratios than M. marinum strains. These data provide clues regarding the characteristics of the niche(s) M. ulcerans occupies and are guiding efforts to control the spread of Buruli ulcer.

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